During his adolescence, Alexander lived tutored by the philosopher Aristotle till the age of 16. After Philip’s assassination in 336 BC, Alexander replaced his father to the throne and acquired a strong nation and an accomplished Army. Alexander was granted the leadership of Greece and used this authority to propel his father’s Panhellenic project to point the Greeks in the conquering of Persia. In 334 BC, he attacked the Achaemenid Empire, ruled Asia Minor, and started a series of crusades that lasted ten years. Alexander crushed the rule of Persia in a series of crucial battles, most reputable the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. He finally overthrew the Persian King Darius III and vanquished the Achaemenid Empire in its entirety. At that time, his realm extended from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River. Seeking to reach the “ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea”, he overran India in 326 BC but was ultimately overpowered to turn back at the command of his companies. Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC, the city he intended to place as his capital, without performing a set of organized campaigns that would have started with an incursion of Arabia. In the years succeeding his death, a series of civil wars tore his nation apart, appearing in several states controlled by the Diadochi, Alexander’s remaining generals and heirs.
Alexander’s legacy encompasses the cultural diffusion his victories induced, such as Greco-Buddhism. He established some twenty cities that carried his name, most prominently Alexandria in Egypt. Alexander’s settlement of Greek colonists and the resulting expanse of Greek civilization in the east produced in a new Hellenistic civilization, features of which were still apparent in the customs of the Byzantine Empire in the mid-15th centenary and the behavior of Greek demagogues in central and far East Anatolia continuously the 1920s. Alexander became legendary as a classic hero in the image of Achilles, and he features prominently in the history and mythic stories of both Greek and non-Greek cultures. He became the standard against which military leaders distinguished themselves, and military institutions around the world still teach his tactics. He is often placed amongst the most prominent people in civilized history, along with his mentor Aristotle.